Where one or more pest species are present, a concerted control programme is recommended immediately prior to planting. Regular follow-up control efforts may be necessary until seedlings exceed one metre in height. Monitor the planting site regularly for pest damage and be prepared to enact control quickly if new damage is detected. The presence of rabbits, hares or possums can usually be differentiated by the damage they cause. Rabbits generally leave tell tale diggings; hares typically slice through seedling stems leaving a clean 45° angle cut; and possums characteristically chew at accessible and new-growth leaves and flowers. Ring-barking is usually rabbits. Make sure you spray the stem or trunk of the tree as well as leaves. Deer damage can be even more sever and will often kill the tree if they denude it to the extent of eating all or most of the leaves. In this case the tree will seldom recover and it may be too late to apply a repellent.